Patents and the Economy

Innovation Economics: The Interplay Among Technology Standards, Competitive Conduct, and Economic Performance, 2013
This article argues that studies of innovation should apply game-theoretic models that account for strategic interaction and empirical tools that control for the interplay among technology standards, competitive conduct, and economic performance.

How do competitive pressures affect incentives to innovate when there is a market for inventions?, 2013
Competition and intellectual property (IP) protections are complements in stimulating innovation. When IP is appropriable, a market for inventions forms and competitive pressures increase incentives to innovate. Competition among producers, the demand side of the market for inventions, and competition among inventors, the supply side of the market for inventions, create incentives to innovate. Firms vertically integrate R&D and production and share technology to appropriate the returns to IP. This implies that antitrust policy and IP protections are complements.

How Patents Provide the Foundation of the Market for Inventions, 2014
This paper develops a framework demonstrating how patents provide the foundation of the market for inventions.

Graham & Sichelman
Patenting By Entrepreneurs: An Empirical Study, 2010
This article reports and analyzes data showing that several widespread beliefs about startup firm patenting practices are incorrect, suggesting that patent holding and the strategic use of patents is more widespread than commentators have previously reported.

Brant & Lohse
The Open Innovation Model, 2014
This briefing paper aims to inform policy-makers and other stakeholders on the contrasts between the open innovation model and the traditional R&D approach.

Are Patents Signals for the IPO Market? An EU-US Comparison for the Software Industry, November 2012
This study tests whether patenting behavior impacts the way investors perceive software firms’ potential through a higher amount invested at the Initial Public Offering (IPO) in the US and Europe, and finds significant positive correlations between various metrics of patenting and the amount collected at the IPO.

The Commercial Value of Software Patents in the High-Tech Industry, May 2015
Patents provide an essential economic opportunity not only to trade right in innovative technology, but to develop the underlying technology further. Without the efficiencies of the patent system, innovators would be ill-equipped to account for their economic needs when grappling with risky investments. This study demonstrates the commercial value of patents in software innovation.

Ernst & Young
Adapting and Evolving: Global Venture Capital Insights and Trends 2014, 2014
The 11th annual report on venture capital (VC) examines key developments in the industry and analyzes the VC hotbeds of the US, Europe, China, Israel, and India, as well as some of the markets emerging onto the VC scene.

Global Intellectual Property Center
IP Creates Jobs for America, May 2012
The GIPC’s research looks at the direct and indirect effects of intellectual property both nationally and at the state level. What they found was truly compelling: IP plays a significant role to every state, from sea to shining sea.

Intellectual Property and the U.S. Economy: Industries in Focus, March 2012
Debate around patents and IP often centers on whether protections for inventions and ideas helps or harms the U.S. economy. The USPTO survey of IP intensive industries answers the question of value. The study finds IP-intensive industries generate nearly half of all private-sector output and support 40 million jobs.

Brookings Institution
Patenting Prosperity, February 2013
At the local level, patents are strong indicators of economic and metropolitan success. The study reveals the rate of patenting currently stands at historically high levels which is commiserate with economic growth, higher wages, and long-term economic performance.

International Chamber of Commerce
Trade Secrets: Tools for Innovation and Collaboration, September 2014
Jennifer Brant and Sebastian Lohse aim to inform policymakers about shortcomings in existing frameworks for trade secret protection, which can undermine cross-border collaboration. It comes amid growing awareness among companies of their vulnerability to the theft of confidential business information.

Patents and Startups

Why do Startups Patent?, 2013
This article lays the groundwork into why start-ups patent, examining the theory, common observations, and existing data on the topic.

Association of University Technology Managers
Tech Transfer Industry Shows Gains, 2014
This paper focuses on technology transfers practices conducted by universities and other nonprofit entities that span the globe and facilitate work at the microscopic level to improve the human condition. Academic tech transfer powers the innovation economy, creates jobs, improves productivity, and offers solutions to environmental challenges.

Licensing Acquired Patents, 2014
This essay explores acquired patent licensing in two ways: it makes the case that the patent licensing business model is new, while presenting knowledge from historic exceptions. The piece suggests ways that acquired patent licensing can have a commercial benefit.

The Surprise Virtues of Treating Trade Secrets as IP Rights, June 2008
Lemley suggests that trade secrets can be justified as a form of intellectual property, and offers some significant advantages for inventors over patent protection.

Jennifer Brant and Sebastian Lohse
Enhancing Intellectual Property Management and Appropriation by Innovative SMEs, 2013
Research from the International Chamber of Commerce highlights how innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can provide considerable economic stimulus for innovation, growth and job creation, through the effective protection and management of IP. Patents and trade secrets are just some of the key strategies SMEs can employ to collaborate and protect their innovations.

Graham, Merges, Samuelson and Sichelman
High Technology Entrepreneurs and the Patent System: Results of the 2008 Berkeley Patent Study, 2009

Mann & Sager
Patents, Venture Capital, and Software Start-Ups, September 2005

Startups and the Patent System: A Narrative, March 2012

Graham & Visnubhakat

Of Smart Phone Wars and Software Patents, 2013

This article discusses the competing values at work in the patent system and how the system has dealt with these disputes.